Thermodynamic Driving Forces


Objective: Extend the non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of immiscible two-phase flow to include gravitational, osmotic, chemical and thermal driving forces with the aim to construct a consistent and general description of immiscible two-phase flow.

Principal Investigator WP5: Professor Signe Kjelstrup. Partners: Profs. Dick Bedeaux, Eirik Grude Flekkøy, Bjørn Jamtveit, Bjørn Hafskjold, Miguel Rubi, Øivind Wilhelmsen, Claire Chassagne. Researcher: Amiri Seyed Ali Ghoreishian. PhD-candidates: Olav Galteland.

It is important to extend the description of flow in porous media beyond the Darcy or Washburn regimes.  Flow can also occur in two-phase systems due to temperature gradients.  For instance, the transport of water vapor across hydrophobic pores, enables us to use low temperature waste heat to clean contaminated water solutions cf. Figure 5.1.

Transport of particles across a non-wetting pore due to a temperature difference across the pore. The particle stays in the gas phase. Picture courtesy: Olav Galteland.

The use of thermal and other driving forces for porous media transport is interesting for instance in the modelling of frost heave in geophysical contexts. Electroacoustic signals can be used to characterize the state of clay and consolidated muds. For this, the interplay between theory and experiments is essential.

Plenary lectures at international conferences and distinguished lectures

  1. Signe Kjelstrup. Flow in porous materials – as seen from thermodynamics. Invited lecture, Interpore, Rotterdam, May 7-11, 2017
  2. Signe Kjelstrup. Understanding the interface resistance to heat and mass transfer.  Invited plenary speaker, Gordon Research Conference: Micro and Nanocale phase change heat transfer, Galveston, January 9-13, 2017
  3. Signe Kjelstrup. Small and large system’s thermodynamics. From molecules to process descriptions. Guest lecture, Scoula Normale Superiore, Pisa, Marc 14-17, 2016

Media coverage

  1. Article on how research on waterdroplets can contribute to improve weather forecasts and climate models was picked up by several national media outlets such as Gemini, Teknisk Ukeblad,, and international media outlets such as Sciencedaily, Nanotechnology now,, Terradaily, Science magazine, Chemeurope (German), and several other webpages and blogs, 2016-05-14
  2. Two page article in the Norwegian magazine “Aftenposten vitenskap” about our research on waterdroplets, 2016-04-25

Selected articles before center launch

  1. Riccardo Rurali, Luciano Colombo, Xavier Cartoixa, Øivind Wilhelmsen, Thuat T. Trinh, Dick Bedeaux, and Signe Kjelstrup. Heat transport through a solid-solid junction: the interface as an autonomous thermodynamic system, Chem. Chem. Phys. (2016). doi:10.1039/C6CP01872F
  2. Elisa Magnanelli, Øivind Wilhelmsen, Mario Acquarone, Lars P. Folkow, Signe Kjelstrup. The efficiency of a reindeer nose: The Nasal Geometry of the Reindeer Gives Energy-Efficient Respiration, Non-Eq. Thermodyn. 42 (2016) 59-78 doi: 10.1515/jnet-2016-0038
  3. Øivind Wilhelmsen, Thuat T. Trinh, Anders Lervik, Vijay Kumar Badam, Signe Kjelstrup, and Dick Bedeaux. Coherent description of transport across the water interface: From nanodroplets to climate models, Rev. E 93 002800 (2016). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032801
  4. Isha Savani, Dick Bedeaux, Signe Kjelstrup, Morten Vassvik, Alex Hansen, Santanu Sinha, Ensemble Distribution for Immiscible Two-Phase Flow in Two-Dimensional Networks,  Physical review E 02/2017; 95(2). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.95.023116
  5. Luuc Keulen, L.V. van der Ham, J. Haanemaijer, N.J.M. Kuipers, Thijs Vlugt, S. Kjelstrup, Membrane distillation against a pressure difference, Membr. November 2016 · Journal of Membrane Science 11/2016; 524:151-162. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2016.10.054

Recent articles

  1. Maria Barragan and Signe Kjelstrup, Thermo-osmosis in Membrane Systems: A review. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn (2017). doi: 10.1515/jnet-016-0088
  2. M. Rubi, A. Lervik. D. Bedeaux, and S. Kjelstrup, Entropy Facilitated Active Transport, J. Chem. Phys. 146 (2017) 185101; doi:10.1063/1.4982799
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