M. Moura, K. J. Måløy, E. G. Flekkøy, and R. Toussaint. “ This paper has just been published by PRL (Physical Review Letters). In this paper we have experimentally verified a 30 years long prediction about how the relative probability of invasion of a pore in a porous medium varies with space and time. When a material full of pores (like a porous rock or a sponge) is soaked in a fluid and another fluid is forced into it, an interesting dynamics arises in which the invading fluid sequentially displaces the other one out of the pores. In the late 80s a group of researchers employed computer simulations to quantify the relative probabilities of such pore displacements, Verification of a Dynamic Scaling for the Pair Correlation Function during the Slow Drainage of a Porous Medium“. making numerical predictions about how this probability varies with space and time. – By using synthetic porous samples and modern image analysis techniques, we have been able to finally verify those predictions experimentally and to give a full theoretical explanation for the observations. The increased understanding of this kind of phenomena is relevant for many fields in which one fluid displaces another from a porous network, such as CO 2 storage in subsea rocks and the remediation of contaminated soils. A popular science article about this work was published in Titan.
M. Moura, K. J. Måløy and R. Toussaint. The article has been published by EPL (Europhysics Letters). This was project in which we have addressed the statistics of burst invasion events in porous media and also the power spectrum of pressure fluctuations associated with the bursts. The illustration shows the flow from left to right, during approx 82 h. Bursts color coded by their size normalized by a typical pore area (top) and randomly (bottom). The vast blue areas in the top image contain many smaller bursts (detail) Critical behavior in porous media flow 2017 , ,
A significant number of these articles have been in highly-cited peer-reviewed international journals such as
Physical Review Letters, Europhysics Letters, Journal Of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Journal Of Petroleum Science And Engineering. Many of the articles have high citation indices and journal impact factors reflect well the published work of the centre. 2018
A.Cochard, O. Lengline, K.J. Måløy, R. Toussaint (2018).
Thermally activated cracks fronts propagating in pinning disorder: simultaneous brittle/creep behavior depending on scale. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A10170399, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2017.0399 S.Santucci, K.T. Tallakstad, L. Angheluta, L. Laurson, R. Toussaint, K.J. Måløy (2018)
Avalanches and extreme value statistics in interfacial crackling dynamics. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A20170394, http://dx.org/10.1098/rsta.20170394 M.Nishino, P.A. Rikvold, C. Omand and S. Miyashita (2018).
Multistability in an unusual phase diagram induced by the competition between antiferromagnetic-like short-range and ferromagnetic-like long-range interactions. Physical Review B 98, 144402 – Published 2 October 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.98144402 S. Kandhasamy, A. Solheim, S. Kjelstrup, and G. M. Haarberg (2018).
Electrolyte Melt Compositions for Low Temperature Molten Carbonate Thermocell. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b00984 • Publication Date (Web): 10 Sep 2018 A.
, and M icr oseismic Emissions During P neuma tic F r ac turing: A Numerical Model to Explain the Doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JB014613 Experiments. 16 July 2018. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. R. Rurali, X. Cartoixà, D. Bedeaux, S. Kjelstrup and L. Colombo (2018).
The Thermal Boundary Resistance at Semiconductor Interfaces: A Critical Appraisal of the Onsager vs Kapitza Formalisms. First published: 14 August 2018. Doi: 10.1039/C8CP02104J. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Y. Murase and P. A. Rikvold (2018).
Conservation of population size is required for self-organized criticality in evolution models. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aad861. arXiv.org > q-bio > arXiv:1808.03488
New. J. Phys. 20, 083023 (2018) (9 pages). Submitted on 10 Aug 2018 S. Pradhan, A. Hansen and P. Ray (2018).
A Renormalization Group Procedure for Fiber Bundle Models. Front. Phys., 02 July 2018. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2018.00065 E.G. Flekkøy, M. Moura and K.J. Måløy (2018)
Mechanisms of the Flying Chain Fountain. 14 August 2018. Front. Phys. 6:84. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2018.00084 D. Bedeaux and S. Kjelstrup (2018).
Hill’s nano-thermodynamics is equivalent with Gibbs’ thermodynamics for surfaces of constant curvatures. Available online 20 July 2018. Chemical Physics Letters. Volume 707, (2018). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2018.07.031 R.C. Aadland, C.J. Dziuba, E.B. Heggset, K. Syverud, O. Torsæter, T. Holt, I.D. Gates and S.L. Bryant (2018).
Identification of Nanocellulose Retention Characteristics in Porous Media. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2018 Jul 19;8(7). pii: E547. doi: 10.3390/nano8070547. E. Magnanelli,
O. T. Berglihn and S. Kjelstrup (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/er.4123. Wiley Online Library Exergy‐based performance indicators for industrial practice. First published: 05 July 2018.
E. Magnanelli , Ø. Wilhelmsen , E. Johannessen and S. Kjelstrup (2018) Energy efficient design of membrane processes by use of entropy production minimization. Available online 15 June 2018. Computers & Chemical Engineering, Volume 117, 2 September 2018, Pages 105-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2018.06.00 A. Mikkelsen, K. Khobaib, F.K. Eriksen, K.J. Måløy and Z. Rozynek(2018).
Particle-covered drops in electric fields: drop deformation and surface particle organization. First published on 14 Jun 2018. Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/c8sm00915e (2018) M. A. Gjennestad, M. Vassvik, S. Kjelstrup and A. Hansen (2018).
Stable and efficient time integration of a dynamic pore network model for two-phase flow in porous media (2018). 13 June 2018. Frontiers in Physics. vol. 6. Doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2018.00056 S. Li, N.J. Hadia, H.C. Lau, O. Torsæter, L.P. Stubbs and Q.H. Ng (2018).
Silica Nanoparticles Suspension for Enhanced Oil Recovery: Stability Behavior and Flow Visualization. SPE-190802-MS. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE Europec featured at 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 11-14 June, Copenhagen, Denmark. https://doi.org/10.2118/190802-MS
A. J. Ghahfarokhi , J. Kleppe and O. Torsaeter (2018). In-Depth Reservoir Placement of pH-Sensitive Polymer Gels – Importance of Geochemical Reactions in Numerical Simulations. 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2018. Publication date: 11 June 2018. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201801436 S. Kjelstrup, D. Bedeaux, A. Hansen, B. Hafskjold and O. Galteland (2018).
Non-isothermal transport of multi-phase fluids in porous media. The entropy production. Submitted on 10 May 2018. arXiv:1805.03943 M.A. Gjennestad, E. Aursand, E. Magnanelli and J.G. Pharoah (2018)
Performance analysis of heat and energy recovery ventilators using exergy analysis and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Available online 17 April 2018. Energy and Buildings. vol. 170. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.04.013. L. Xu, B. Marks, R. Toussaint, E.G. Flekkøy and K.J. Måløy (2018)
Dispersion in Fractures With Ramified Dissolution Patterns. 16 April 2018. Front. Phys. 6:29. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2018.00029 D. Bedeaux and
S. Kjelstrup (2018). Fluid-Fluid Interfaces of Multi-Component Mixtures in Local Equilibrium. Published: 4 April 2018. Entropy 2018, 20 (4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20040250
A. Taheri, O. Torsæter, E. Lindeberg, N. J. Hadia, D. Wessel-Berg (2018). Qualitative and quantitative experimental study of convective mixing process during storage of CO. Available online 19 March 2018. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. Volume 71, April 2018, Pages 212-226 2 in heterogeneous saline aquifers H.H. Khanamiri and O. Torsæter (2018).
Fluid Topology in Pore Scale Two‐Phase Flow Imaged by Synchrotron X‐ray Microtomography. First published: 28 February 2018.Water Resources Research. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR021302 J. T. Kjellstadli, E. Bering, S. Pradhan and A. Hansen (2018).
Origin of pseudo-stability in stress-induced damage evolution processes. 9 February 2018. arXiv.org>cond-mat>arKiv:1802.02506 F.K. Eriksen, R. Toussaint, A.L. Turquet, K.J. Måløy and E.G. Flekkøy (2018).
Pressure evolution and deformation of confined granular media during pneumatic fracturing. Published 18 January 2018. Phys. Rev. E. 97, 012908, (2018) X. Wang
, Z. Zhang, O. Torsæter and J. He (2018). Atomistic insights into the nanofluid transport through an ultra-confined capillary. First published on 12 Jan 2018. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018,20, 4831-4839. DOI: 10.1039/c7cp08140e J.A. Eriksen, R. Toussaint, K.J. Måløy, E.G. Flekkøy, O. Galland and B. Sandnes(2018).
Pattern formation of frictional fingers in a gravitational potential. Published 3 January 2018. Phys. Rev. Fluids 3, 013801, (2018) 2017
N. Dawass, P. Krüger, S. K. Schnell, D. Bedeaux, S. Kjelstrup, J. M. Simon and T.J.H. Vlugt (2017). Finite-size effects of Kirkwood–Buff integrals from molecular simulations. Pages 599-612. Published online: 22 Dec 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927022.2017.1416114 A. Hansen, S. Sinha, D. Bedeaux, S. Kjelstrup, M. Aa. Gjennestad and M. Vassvik (2017).
Relations between Seepage Velocities in Immiscible, Incompressible Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media. Submitted on 19 Dec 2017. arXiv:1605.02874v2. M. Moura, K.J. Måløy, E.G. Flekkøy and R. Toussaint (2017).
Verification of a dynamic scaling for pair correlation function during the slow drainage of a porous medium. Published 11 October 2017. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 154503 (2017)
B. Fang, F. Ning, P. Cao, L. Peng, J. Wu, Z. Zhang, T. J. H. Vlugt and S. Kjelstrup (2017). Modeling Thermodynamic Properties of Propane or Tetrahydrofuran Mixed with Carbon Dioxide or Methane in Structure-II Clathrate Hydrates . J. Phys. Chem. C, 2017, 121 (43), pp 23911 23925. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06623. Publication Date (Web): October 5, 2017
F. Richter , P. J.S. Vie, S. Kjelstrup and O. S. Burheim (2017). Measurements of ageing and thermal conductivity in a secondary NMC-hard carbon Li-ion battery and the impact on internal temperature profiles. Electrochimica Acta. Volume 250, 1 October 2017, Pages 228-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2017.07.173
F. Richter, A. Gunnarshaug, O. S, Burheim, P. J. S. Vie and S. Kjelstrup (2017). Single Electrode Entropy Change for LiCoO. doi: 2 Electrodes 10.1149/08010.0219ecst. ECS Trans. 2017 volume 80, issue 10, 219-238 R. C. Aadland, C. J. Dziuba, E. B. Heggset, K. Syverud, O. Torsæter, I. D. Gates and S. Bryant (2017).
Transportation of Nanocellulose dispersions through porous media. International symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Vienna, Austria, 27-30 August 2017.
F. Richter, S. Kjelstrup, P. J.S. Vie and O. S. Burheim (2017). Thermal conductivity and internal temperature profiles of Li-ion secondary batteries. Journal of Power Sources. Volume 359, 15 August 2017, Pages 592-600 D. L. Roest, P. Ballone, D. Bedeaux and S. Kjelstrup (2017).
Published online 24 July 2017. J. Phys. Chem. C. (2017) DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b02842 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Metal/Molten Alkali Carbonate Interfaces. B. Marks, J.A. Eriksen, G. Dumazer, B. Sandnes and K.J. Måløy (2017).
Size segregation of intruders in perpetual granular avalanches. Published online: 21 July 2017. J. Fluid Mech. 825, 550, (2017)
M. H. Waage, T. J. H. Vlugt and S. Kjelstrup (2017). Phase Diagram of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates Computed by Monte Carlo Simulations. Phys. Chem. B, 2017, 121 (30), pp 7336–7350. DOI : 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b03071. Publication Date (Web): July 6, 2017 F. K. Eriksen, R. Toussaint, A. L. Turquet, K.J. Måløy and E.G. Flekkøy (2017).
. Published 12 June 2017. Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. ISSN 1063-651X. . doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.062901 Pneumatic fractures in confined granular media M. Barragan and S. Kjelstrup (2017).
Thermo-osmosis in Membrane Systems: A review . Non-Equilib. Thermodyn (June 2017). doi: 10.1515/jnet-016-0088
E. Magnanelli, E. Johannessen and S. Kjelstrup (2017). Entropy Production Minimization as Design Principle for Membrane Systems: Comparing Equipartition Results to Numerical Optima. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2017, 56 (16), pp 4856–4866. doi : 10.1021/acs.iecr.7b00493. Publication Date (Web): April 12, 2017 S. R. Pride, D.W. Vasco, E.G. Flekkøy and R. Holtzman (2017).
. Published 10 April 2017. Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. ISSN 1063-651X. Dispersive transport and symmetry of the dispersion tensor in porous media 95(4) . doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.95.043103
Chemical Physics Letters. Volume 672, 16 March 2017, Pages 128-132. T. T. Trinh , N. Meling, D. Bedeaux, S. Kjelstrup (2017). Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen dissociation reaction from the small system method and reactive force field ReaxFF. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2017.01.058 B. A. Strøm,
Size and shape effects on the thermodynamic properties of nanoscale volumes of water. First published on 07 Mar 2017. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017,19, 9016-9027. DOI: 10.1039/C7CP00874K
J.-C. de Hemptinne , J.-H. Ferrasse, A. Gorak, S. Kjelstrup, F. Maréchal, O. Baudouin and R. Gani (2017). Energy efficiency as an example of cross-discipline collaboration in chemical engineering. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. Volume 119, March 2017, Pages 183-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2017.01.020
E.G. Flekkøy, S.R. Pride and R. Toussaint (2017).
. Published 24 February 2017. Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. ISSN 1063-651X. Onsager symmetry from mesoscopic time reversibility and the hydrodynamic dispersion tensor for coarse-grained systems 95(2) . doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.95.022136 I. Savani, M.H. Waage, M. Børset, S. Kjelstrup and Ø. Wilhelmsen (2017).
. Available online 10 February 2017. Energy Conversion and Management (2017). DOI:10.1016/j.enconman.2017.01.058 Harnessing thermoelectric power from transient heat sources: Waste heat recovery from silicon production M. Rubi, A. Lervik, D. Bedeaux, and S. Kjelstrup (2017).
J. Chem. Phys. 146 (January 2017) 185101; doi:10.1063/1.4982799 Entropy Facilitated Active Transport,
Transport in Porous Media. January 2017, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 869–888. M. Moura, K.J. Måløy and R. Toussaint (2016).
. 15 November 2016. Europhysics letters. ISSN 0295-5075. Critical behavior in porous media flow 118(1) . doi:10.1209/0295-5075/118/14004
Selected articles before center launch
I. Savani, D. Bedeaux, S. Kjelstrup, M. Vassvik, A. Hansen and S. Sinha (2017).
, Physical review E 02/2017; 95(2). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.95.023116 Ensemble Distribution for Immiscible Two-Phase Flow in Two-Dimensional Networks G. Dumazer, B. Sandnes, M. Ayaz, K.J. Måløy and E.G. Flekkøy (2016).
, Phys. Rev. Lett., 117, 028002 (2016). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.028002 Frictional Fluid Dynamics and Plug Formation in Multiphase Millifluidic Flow R. Rurali, L. Colombo, X. Cartoixa, Ø. Wilhelmsen, T. T. Trinh, D. Bedeaux and S. Kjelstrup (2016).
Chem. Chem. Phys. (2016). doi:10.1039/C6CP01872F Heat transport through a solid-solid junction: the interface as an autonomous thermodynamic system, E. Magnanelli, Ø. Wilhelmsen, M. Acquarone, L. P. Folkow and S. Kjelstrup (2016).
, Non-Eq. Thermodyn The efficiency of a reindeer nose: The Nasal Geometry of the Reindeer Gives Energy-Efficient Respiration . 42 (2016) 59-78 doi: 10.1515/jnet-2016-0038 Ø. Wilhelmsen, T. T. Trinh, A. Lervik, V. K. Badam, S. Kjelstrup and D. Bedeaux (2016).
Rev. E 93 002800 (2016). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032801 Coherent description of transport across the water interface: From nanodroplets to climate models, L. Keulen, L.V. van der Ham, J. Haanemaijer, N.J.M. Kuipers, T. Vlugt and S. Kjelstrup (2016).
Membr. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference, November 2016 · Journal of Membrane Science 11/2016; 524:151-162. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2016.10.054 M. Niebling, R. Toussaint, E.G. Flekkøy and K.J. Måløy (2015).
. Phys. Rev. E 86 (2015) Dynamic aerofracture or hydrofracture of dense granular packing: pressure and viscosity control of the fracture patterns J.A. Eriksen and E.G. Flekkøy
, Phys. Rev. E 92 (2015) Numerical approach to frictional fingers M. Moura, E. -A. Fiorentino, K.J. Måløy, G. Schafer R. and Toussaint (2015).
. Water Resour. Res., 51, doi:10.1002/ 2015WR017196 (2015). Impact of sample geometry on the measurement of pressure-saturation curves: experiments and simulations H. H. Khanamiri, O. Torsæter and J.Å. Stensen (2016).
. Energy & Fuels 2016;Volume 30.(10) s. 8114-8124. doi Effect of calcium in pore scale oil trapping by low-salinity water and surfactant enhanced oil recovery at strongly water-wet conditions: in situ imaging by X-ray microtomography : 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01236 S. Li, M. Genys, W. Kun and O. Torsæter (2015).
. SPE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference and Exhibition; 2015-09-14 – 2015-09-16. https://doi.org/10.2118/175610-MS Experimental Study of Wettability Alteration during Nanofluid Enhanced Oil Recovery Process and Its Effect on Oil Recovery K. J. Zlotorowicz, P.I. Dahl, M. S. Thomassen and S. Kjelstrup (2015).
J. Power Sources, 287 (2015) 472-477. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.04.079 Tailored Porosities of the Cathode Layer for Improved Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, L. Hendraningrat and O. Torsæter (2014). “
”. Energy & Fuels, 2014; Volume 28.(10) s. 6228-6241. doi: Effects of the initial rock wettability on silica-based nanofluid-enhanced oil recovery processes at reservoir temperatures 10.1021/ef5014049 M. Erpelding, S. Sinha, K.T. Tallakstad, A. Hansen, E.G. Flekkøy, and K.J. Måløy,
, Phys Rev. E. 88, 053004 (2013). doi: 10.1103 History-independence of steady state in simultaneous two-phase flow through 2D porous media L. Laurson, X. Illa, S. Santucci, K.T. Tallakstad, K.J. Måløy, and M. Allava (2013).
. Nat. Commun. 4:2927 doi: 10.1038/ncomms3927 (2013) The average avalanche shape: universality beyond the mean field K.T. Tallakstad, R. Toussaint, S. Santucci and K.J. Måløy (2013).
, Phys. Rev. Lett, 110, 145501 (2013). doi:10.1103 Non-Gaussian Nature of Fracture and Survival of Fat-Tail Exponenets R. Farokhpoor, B.J.A. Bjørkvik, E.G.B. Lindeberg, O. Torsæter (2013). “
”. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2013; Volume 12. s.18-25. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.11.003 Wettability behavior of CO2 at storage conditions M.S. Afrapoli, S. Alipour, O. Torsæter (2012). “
”. Transport in Porous Media 2012 ;Volume 93.(3) s. 705-719. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-012-9978-z Analysis of Microscopic Displacement Mechanisms of a MIOR Process in Porous Media with Different Wettability B. Sandnes, E.G. Flekkøy, H.A. Knudsen, K.J. Måløy and H. See (2011).
, Nature Comm. 2 doi:10.1038/ncomms1289 (2011) Patterns and flow in frictional fluid dynamics O. Aursjø, H.A. Knudsen, E.G. Flekkøy and K.J. Måløy (2010).
, Phys. Rev. E. 82, 026305, (2010). doi:10.1103 Oscillation induced displacement pattern in a two-dimensional porous medium: A lattice Boltzmann study S. Kjelstrup, M.-O. Coppens, J. G. Pharoah and P. Pfeifer (2010).
Energy & Fuels, 24 (2010) 5097-5108. DOI:10.1021/ef100610w Nature-Inspired Energy- and Material-Efficient Design of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, K.T. Tallakstad, G. Løvoll, H. A. Knudsen, T. Ramstad, E.G. Flekkøy and K.J. Måløy (2009).
, Phys. Rev. E. 80, 036308 (2009). Steady-state simultaneous two-phase flow in porous media: An experimental study K.T. Tallakstad, H. A. Knnudsen, T. Ramstad, G. Løvoll, K. J. Måløy, R. Toussaint and E. G. Flekkøy (2009).
. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 074502, (2009). doi Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Statistics and Transport Properties : https://doi.org/10.1103 J. L. Vinningland, Ø. Johnsen, E.G. Flekkøy, R. Toussaint and K.J. Måløy (2007).
, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 048001 (2007). doi:10.1103 Granular Rayleigh- Taylor instability: experiment and simulation E. Kowalewski, I. Rueslåtten, K.H. Steen, G. Bodtker, O. Torsæter (2006).
, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering , 52 (2006) 275-286. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.011 Microbial improved oil recovery-bacterial induced wettability and interfacial tension effects on oil production R. Toussaint, G. Løvoll, Y. Meheust, K. J. Måløy and J. Schmittbuhl (2005).
. Europhys Lett. 71, 583, (2005). doi: 10.1209/epl/i2005-10136-9 Influence of pore-scale disorder on viscous fingering during drainage G. Løvoll, Y. Meheust, R. Toussaint, J. Schmittbuhl and K. J. Måløy (2004).
. Phys. Rev. E 70, 026301 (2004) Growth activity during fingering in a porous Hele-Shaw cell E. Kowalewski, T. Holt and O. Torsæter (2002).
, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 33 (2002), 19-28. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(01)00172-3 Wettability alterations due to an oil soluble additive Y. Meheust, G. Løvoll, K. J. Måløy and J. Schmittbuhl (2002).
. Phys. Rev. E. 66, 051603 (2002) Gravity stabilized viscous fingering K. J. Måløy, L. Furuberg, J. Feder and T. Jøssang (1992).
. Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2161-2164, (1992) Dynamics of Slow Drainage in Porous Media K. J. Måløy, J. Feder and T. Jøssang (1985).
. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2688-2691, (1985). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.2688 Viscous Fingering Fractals in Porous Media