Thermodynamic Driving Forces


Extend the non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of immiscible two-phase flow to include gravitational, osmotic, chemical and thermal driving forces with the aim to construct a consistent and general description of immiscible two-phase flow.

Transport of particles across a non-wetting pore due to a temperature difference across the pore. The particle stays in the gas phase. Picture courtesy: Olav Galteland.

It is important to extend the description of flow in porous media beyond the Darcy or Washburn regimes.  Flow can also occur in two-phase systems due to temperature gradients.  For instance, the transport of water vapor across a hydrophobic pore, enables us to use low temperature waste heat to clean contaminated water solutions. The use of thermal and other driving forces for porous media transport is interesting for instance in the modelling of frost heave in geophysical contexts. Electroacoustic signals can be used to characterize the state of clay and consolidated muds. For this, the interplay between theory and experiments is essential. The second law of thermodynamics governs the laws of transport. How this has an impact on the medium structure is still an open question.


Principal Investigator for Research Theme 5: 
Professor Signe Kjelstrup.

Profs. Dick Bedeaux, Eirik Grude Flekkøy, Bjørn Jamtveit, Bjørn Hafskjold, Miguel Rubi, Øivind Wilhelmsen, Claire Chassagne, Natalya Kizilova.

Amiri Seyed Ali Ghoreishian.

Olav Galteland, Michael Rauter.

Plenary lectures at international conferences and distinguished lectures:

  1. Signe Kjelstrup. Flow in porous materials – as seen from thermodynamics. Invited lecture, Interpore, Rotterdam, May 7-11, 2017
  2. Signe Kjelstrup. Understanding the interface resistance to heat and mass transfer.  Invited plenary speaker, Gordon Research Conference: Micro and Nanocale phase change heat transfer, Galveston, January 9-13, 2017
  3. Signe Kjelstrup. Small and large system’s thermodynamics. From molecules to process descriptions. Guest lecture, Scoula Normale Superiore, Pisa, Marc 14-17, 2016

Media coverage:

  1. Article on how research on waterdroplets can contribute to improve weather forecasts and climate models was picked up by several national media outlets such as Gemini, Teknisk Ukeblad,, and international media outlets such as Sciencedaily, Nanotechnology now,, Terradaily, Science magazine, Chemeurope (German), and several other webpages and blogs, 2016-05-14
  2. Two page article in the Norwegian magazine “Aftenposten vitenskap” about our research on waterdroplets, 2016-04-25

Selected articles before center launch:

  1. Øivind Wilhelmsen, Thuat T. Trinh, Anders Lervik, Vijay Kumar Badam, Signe Kjelstrup, and Dick Bedeaux. Coherent description of transport across the water interface: From nanodroplets to climate models E 93 002800 (2016). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032801
  2. Luuc Keulen, L.V. van der Ham, J. Haanemaijer, N.J.M. Kuipers, Thijs Vlugt, S. Kjelstrup, Membrane distillation against a pressure differenceNovember 2016 · Journal of Membrane Science 11/2016; 524:151-162. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2016.10.054
  3. Rubi, A. Lervik. D. Bedeaux, and S. Kjelstrup, Entropy Facilitated Active TransportJ. Chem. Phys. 146 (2017) 185101; doi:10.1063/1.4982799

Recent articles:

  1. Dick Bedeaux and Signe Kjelstrup, Fluid-Fluid Interfaces of Multi-Component Mixtures in Local Equilibrium, Entropy 20 (2018) 250; doi:10.3390/e20040250 www.mdpi
  2. Dick Bedeaux and Signe Kjelstrup, Hill’s nano-thermodynamics is equivalent with Gibbs’ thermodynamics for curved surfaces, Chemical Physics Letters (2018)
  3. Signe Kjelstrup, Dick Bedeaux, Alex Hansen, Bjørn Hafskjold, Olav Galteland, Non-isothermal transport of multi-phase fluids in porous media. The entropy production, Frontiers in Physics 6 (2018) 126,   doi: 10.3389/fphy.2018.00126
  4. Signe Kjelstrup, Dick Bedeaux, Alex Hansen, Bjørn Hafskjold, Olav Galteland, Non-isothermal transport of multi-phase fluids in porous media. The constitutive equations ArXiv:1805.03943v1 [physics.flu-dyn] 10 May 2018