Our laboratories offer excellent working conditions and are equipped with the-state-of-the art equipment and instrumentation. Here follows more information on the specific instruments used for the various types of analysis and characterization.
A laboratory at the Physics department at NTNU offers laser-induced heating and thermal emission imaging to study mass transport under steep thermal gradients. We are currently imaging liquid alloy flows through solid semiconductor-core fibers.
The laboratory has a CO2 laser source (G48-2-28W, Synrad) which is used to impose a temperature gradient on a microsystem encapsulated by silica. A high-resolution USB CCD camera (DCU224M, ThorLabs) is used for real-time observation of liquid droplet flows through solid, made possible by differences in the emissivity of the liquid and solid. Software packages, including ImageJ, are used to track and analyze particle motion, and the temperature gradient is assessed with emission intensity mapping.
Materials analysis is carried out with NTNU facilities for XRD, XCT and microscopy at NORTEM and NanoLab.
Frames from a CCD video showing Ge-rich SiGe liquid flowing through solid SiGe in a silica-clad fiber. Yellow circles highlight one of the flowing droplets and a gray arrow shows the illumination direction of the CO2 laser. The three frames are arranged in chronological order. (U. Gibson laboratory)
Four specialized laboratories at the University of Oslo (UiO) are equipped to pursue a wide set of state-of-the-art techniques to study the dynamics and structure of flow in two- and three-dimensional porous media.
We have a full range of high-resolution and high-speed imaging techniques, including two ultrafast Photron Ultima (SA5 and APX) cameras with 7000 fps at a spatial resolution FLIR SC300 infrared camera used for real-time measurements of heat dissipation in fractures, hydro-fractures and porous media flows and a wide variety of DSLR camera and accompanying optics. Microscale experiments can be imaged via far field microscopy using a Zeiss Stemi 2000-C distorsion-free stereo microscope which couples to our high-speed and high-resolution cameras.
The figure on the left shows a variety of structures observed at different injection rates of air into a glycerol solution with a granular suspension (K.J. Måløy laboratory)
Flicker-free illumination sources tailored for the different applications (including high-speed microscopy) are also available.
We have also recently bought a Krüss DSA25 drop shape analyzer to perform direct measurements of surface tension, wetting properties and surface free energy.
Additionally, our laboratories include a large set of different optical equipment, such as lasers with different intensities and wavelengths, lenses and other optical components, cameras and microscopes for Particle Image Velocimetry.
We are also well-equipped to perform homodyne correlation spectroscopy for the measurement of particle velocity fluctuations in fluids, diffusion constants and viscosities.
In addition to this wide variety of state-of-art techniques, our laboratories are also fully equipped with standard fluid mechanics labware, such as capillary viscometers, high-precision scales, pressure and temperature sensors, surface treatment chemicals for the control of wetting properties and general laboratories glassware.
The photo on the right shows a layer of CO2 above a water-saturated porous medium consisting of glass beads. An indicator of acidity has been added to visualize the CO2 fingers (K.J. Måløy laboratory)
Optical scanner for 3D imaging (PoreLab UiO)
The core analysis laboratory is equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for routine and special core analysis. Included are core preparation equipment (drilling, cutting, cleaning and saturating core plugs), porosimeters, permeameters and apparatus for core plug resistivity measurements. The laboratory has specialized equipment like automated centrifuge for capillary pressure and relative permeability measurements and core flooding rigs for various enhanced oil recovery processes. The main components in the flooding rigs are core holders, pumps, fluid lines, fluid containers, pressure sensors and flow meters.
The laboratory is also equipped with micro-computer tomograph (CT). This micro-CT has a tailor made miniature (5mm diameter) core flooding set up which is used in pore scale studies. In addition the laboratory has microfluidics apparatus where the main components are glass micro models, syringe pumps, microscopes and digital cameras with large monitors.
Micro computer tomograph with flooding equipment (pressure transducer and syringe pump). In the scanning chamber (behind the shield) is the coreholder with miniature core plug.
A description of the main equipment is given here. Supplementary equipment for fluid and fluid/solid interaction analysis includes interfacial tension apparatus (pendant drop and spinning drop), contact angle apparatus, devices for zeta potential and particle size measurements, densitometers, viscosimeters and rheometers.